Spectral resolution refers to the number of bands collected by the sensor and how many unique wavelengths are included in each band. Higher spectral resolution (e.g., hyperspectral) has hundreds of narrow bands where lower resolution multispectral may only have a few wide bands. The higher the spectral resolution the more information that can be collected about chemical characteristics of a material.
Temporal resolution is the amount of time it takes a sensor to image the same geographic area twice. For a satellite, that is the time it takes to complete a full orbit while with planes and drones, the time between captures is more flexible. The images collected over a specific interval are called multi-temporal data.